Resources for Professionals

The CSS is a 36-item self-report instrument designed to identify symptoms of COVID-19-related and other viral infection-related distress.

The CSS is in the public domain, and may be downloaded from this website. However, the CSS may not be modified in any way (e.g., shortened, translated to another language) without permission. The CSS is for research and clinical use and may not be sold for profit.

Download the COVID-19 Stress Scales (English)


This page provides links to translations that have been carried out by others. We are not able to provide any assurances about the adequacy or validity of the translations. Please address all inquiries to the person who carried out the translation. Additionally, please do not modify the translations (e.g. develop a shortened version).

If you are interested in translating the CSS into a language that is not currently available on the website, please contact

General description of the scales

The CSS is a set of five self-report scales designed to measure distress related to COVID-19 and other viral infections. The CSS subscales include:

  • 1. Danger and Contamination Fears (DAN),
  • 2. Socioeconomic Consequences Fears (SEC),
  • 3. Xenophobic fears (XEN),
  • 4. Traumatic Stress Symptoms (TSS), and
  • 5. Compulsive checking and reassurance seeking (CHE)

DAN is measured using 12 items while the remaining scales are measured using 6 items each. A total score represents overall COVID-19-related distress and can help indicate whether there is a presence of COVID Stress Syndrome.

As the scales of the CSS have been shown to have sound psychometric properties, they should meet the needs of both researchers and clinicians who wish to measure pandemic-related stress or assess the COVID Stress Syndrome

The CSS in research

The CSS may be administered either in groups or individually for research purposes. As the essential development of the CSS was carried out with population representative samples, it is suitable for screening in the general population

Clinical use of the CSS

The CSS may be administered to assess pandemic-related stress and the COVID Stress Syndrome.

CSS Publications

Publications from our research team related to the CSS itself:

The CSS has been cited over 640 times to date, please use a relevant database such as Google Scholar or PsycINFO for additional publications.