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The CSS is a 36-item self-report instrument designed to identify symptoms of COVID-19-related and other viral infection-related distress.
The CSS is in the public domain, and may be downloaded from this website. However, the CSS may not be modified in any way (e.g., shortened, translated to another language) without permission. The CSS is for research and clinical use and may not be sold for profit.
Download the COVID-19 Stress Scales (English)
This page provides links to translations that have been carried out by others. We are not able to provide any assurances about the adequacy or validity of the translations. Please address all inquiries to the person who carried out the translation. Additionally, please do not modify the translations (e.g. develop a shortened version).
If you are interested in translating the CSS into a language that is not currently available on the website, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
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General description of the scales
The CSS is a set of five self-report scales designed to measure distress related to COVID-19 and other viral infections. The CSS subscales include:
- 1. Danger and Contamination Fears (DAN),
- 2. Socioeconomic Consequences Fears (SEC),
- 3. Xenophobic fears (XEN),
- 4. Traumatic Stress Symptoms (TSS), and
- 5. Compulsive checking and reassurance seeking (CHE)
DAN is measured using 12 items while the remaining scales are measured using 6 items each. A total score represents overall COVID-19-related distress and can help indicate whether there is a presence of COVID Stress Syndrome.
As the scales of the CSS have been shown to have sound psychometric properties, they should meet the needs of both researchers and clinicians who wish to measure pandemic-related stress or assess the COVID Stress Syndrome
The CSS in research
The CSS may be administered either in groups or individually for research purposes. As the essential development of the CSS was carried out with population representative samples, it is suitable for screening in the general population
Clinical use of the CSS
The CSS may be administered to assess pandemic-related stress and the COVID Stress Syndrome.
Publications from our research team related to the CSS itself:
- How does COVID Stress vary across the anxiety-related disorders? Assessing factorial invariance and changes in COVID Stress Scale scores during the pandemic.
- Substance Use and Abuse, COVID-19-Related Distress, and Disregard for Social Distancing: A Network Analysis
- Predictors of Distress and Coping During Pandemic-Related Self Isolation: The Relative Importance of Personality Traits and Beliefs About Personal Threat
- Effects of Anxiety Sensitivity, Disgust, and Intolerance of Uncertainty on the COVID Stress Syndrome: A Longitudinal Assessment of Transdiagnostic Constructs and the Behavioural Immune System
- Development and Initial Validation of the COVID Stress Scales
- COVID Stress Syndrome: Concept, Structure, and Correlates
- Do Pre-Existing Anxiety-Related and Mood Disorders Differentially Impact COVID-19 Stress Responses and Coping?
- Conducting Exposure and Response Prevention Treatment for Contamination Fears During COVID-19: The Behavioural Immune System Impact on Clinician Approaches to Treatment
- Anxiety Regarding Contracting COVID-19 Related to Interoceptive Anxiety Sensations: The Moderating Role of Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity
- COVID-19 Anxiety Symptoms Associated with Problematic Smartphone Use Severity in Chinese Adults
- A Proactive Approach for Managing COVID-19: The Importance of Understanding the Motivational Roots of Vaccination Hesitancy for SARS-CoV2
- Worry, Avoidance, and Coping During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Comprehensive Network Analysis
The CSS has been cited over 640 times to date, please use a relevant database such as Google Scholar or PsycINFO for additional publications.